January 20

The first Turkish airstrikes hit the outskirts of Afrin Canton. The bombardment kills one child, Yahya Hemeda, and injures another, Khaled Hemeda, according to the Kurdish Red Crescent

January 21

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan states that the objective of Operation Olive Branch is to “return Afrin to its original owners” and resettle it with Arab Syrian refugees.

France calls for an emergency United Nations Security Council meeting to discuss the situation in Afrin and escalating violence in other parts of Syria.

US Secretary of Defense James Mattis says that Turkey informed the United States of the operation before it began, and says that the United States recognizes Turkey’s “legitimate security concerns.”

Turkish airstrikes against a chicken farm in Jilboul village in Sherawa kill eleven people: Wael Al-Hussein; Salma Al-Hussein; Mousab Al-Hussein; Ghaliya Al-Hussein; Hedel Al-Hussein; Ahmed Al-Hussein; Rehef Al-Hussein; Bedar Al-Hussein; Emad Shamo; Ahmed Rehmano; and one unidentified victim, according to the Kurdish Red Crescent. The same attack injured seven more people: Guma Mohemmed Al-Hussein; Hemeda Ibrahim; Hesen Ibrahim Al-Hussein; Fadi Mohemmed Eed; Ismail Mohemmed Ibrahim; Ibrahim Mohemmed Ibrahim; and Khaled Mohemmed Ali.

Human Rights Watch corroborates this report and condemns the Turkish strike.

January 23

Turkish airstrikes in al-Hemam village in Jinderes kill five people: an unknown child, four years old; Elmaza Shieko Horo, fifty years old; an unknown woman, fifty-five years old; an unknown person, nineteen years old; and Gigar Khon, fifteen years old.

January 26

Turkish airstrikes in Mabata kill six members of a displaced family originally from Northern Aleppo: Yousra Taha al-Khater; Soulieman Taha al-Khater; Zaky Taha al-Khater; Moustefa Taha al-Khater; Amena Taha al-Khater; and Taha Moustefa al-Khater.

January 27

Turkey bombs Ain Dara, a 3,000 year old Hittite temple, destroying about 60% of the historic site.

January 28

Turkish airstrikes in Gubela village in Sherawa kill eight people in a civilian home: Kemal Keno, Safaa Keno, Hesen Keno, Hanedy Keno, Amera Keno, Jourya Keno, Fatema Abd Rebo, and Rewan al-Aswad. Seven more civilians are wounded: Abedallah Keno, Mohemmed Abedallah Keno, Abedallah Mohemmed Keno, Hesnaa Abedallah Keno, Mehmoud Abedallah Keno, Rehef Abedallah Keno, and Bedriya Abedallah Keno.

Turkey bombs the Meydanke Dam, which provides drinking water to about 200,000 people.

January 30

Free Syrian Army fighters participating in Operation Olive Branch mutilate the body of Barin Kobane, a YPJ fighter. They film their action and post the video online.

January 31

Turkish airstrikes in Tuneda village in Afrin City injure five people from Jalema village who had fled to Afrin city for safety: Mohemmed Aleko; Ali Ekrem Aleko; Mohemmed Ahmed Aleko; Abedo Mousa Mousa; and Gulah Mohemmed Khalil. One unidentified child is also killed in the attack.

February 4

After Turkey-backed rebels down a Russian jet in Idlib, Russia closes the airspace over Afrin to Turkish jets.

February 5

Turkish-backed forces bomb the headquarters of Heyva Sor a Kurdistanê (the Kurdish Red Crescent) in Rajo, the only humanitarian organization providing aid to Afrin.

February 8

Turkish bombardment target Afrin city center, killing at least one civilian. Turkish forces shell Shiye and Bilbile.

February 9

Russia re-opens the airspace over Afrin and Turkish airstrikes resume.

February 10

Turkey bombs Hecemena, Mesaka, Kure, Qude, Cela and Shediya villages in Rajo, leading to civilian casualties. In Shera, one civilian is killed and two more are hospitalized.

February 11

Turkish artillery attacks on civilian areas in Rajo wound one civilian.

February 12

Turkish airstrikes target an olive oil processing factory, wounding five civilians.

February 13

Turkish bombing in Afrin city kills three civilians and wounds one other.  Turkish airstrikes also kill two women in Jinderes.

February 14

Turkey bombs the Romani Temple in Sherawa, one of Afrin’s oldest historic sites.

February 15

One civilian is killed in Rajo after Turkish artillery attacks targeted the district. Two civilians are injured by shelling in Bilbile.

February 16

One civilian is killed by Turkish bombing in a residential area in Jinderes

In Aranda village in Shiye, Turkish-backed forces use chemical weapons. Six civilians are hospitalized as a result.

U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson meets with Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu in Ankara. The US recognizes Turkey’s “right to secure its borders” and calls for “restraint.”

February 18

Bombardment in Qota and Kara villages in Bilbile districts injures one civilian.

February 19

Turkish bombardment kills one civilian, Rustem Ehmed Cuma, in Derwesh village of Meydanke district. One child, Hiva Kilaho, is killed in Bashute village of Sherawa; seven other children are injured in the same attack. The Information Center of the Afrin Resistance documents testimony from eyewitnesses in Bashute.

February 20

Bombardment injures 6 civilians in Afrin city: Raghad Aboud, Omar Aboud, Aisha Mustafa Jasem, Fawaz Juma Aboud, Abdul Rahman Aboud, and Juma Aboud.

February 23

One civilian, Ereb Ebdulrezaq Îbrahîm, is killed in Jinderes.

A civilian aid convoy carrying food and medical supplies to Afrin from other SDF-controlled areas in Northeast Syria is bombed, killing at least one civilian, Salim Xilef. Twelve other civilians are injured.

February 24

One child, Ibrahim Reshid Resho, is killed by Turkish bombing in Mabata. Three other civilians, including other children, are injured in the same attack.

February 25

Saleh Muslim, former PYD co-chair, is arrested in Prague, where he was working to call international attention to the ongoing attacks on Afrin.

The United Nations Security Council passes a resolution demanding a 30-day ceasefire across all of Syria.

February 26

Five civilians are killed in Yelangoz village in Jinderes.

Turkish officials reject the UN-mandated ceasefire, claiming that it does not affect Operation Olive Branch.

February 27

Turkish artillery attacks in Jindires kill two civilians and wound three others.

Czech authorities release Saleh Muslim, denying a Turkish extradition request.

February 28

One civilian is wounded by artillery fire in Mabata.

March 1

Civilians are killed by airstrikes in Hec Xelil village in Rajo.

March 2

One civilian, Sadiq Hishid, is killed by Turkish bombardment in Mabata, with five others injured in the same attack. The injured civilians are identified as Rêberê Henan; Mehmûd Ebdo Imo; Cemîl Mihemed Weqas; Ehmed Cemîl Qasim; and Ehmed Silêman Mihemed. In Jinderes, a vehicle is attacked by Turkish artillery, killing 8 civilians and injuring 12.

March 3

Five civilians are killed in Meshala village in Shera.

March 4 

One civilian, Zelux Mihemed Hesen Daxli, is killed by Turkish soldiers in Shiye.

March 5

13 civilians were killed in an attack on Jinderes. The Information Center of the Afrin Resistance described the attack as follows:

“Around 9:45, Turkish aircraft heavily bombarded the town Jinderes…Dozens of family houses have been bombed to dust. According to first information of local resources, dozens of injured and death civilians are expected to be under the ruins of the houses. Due to ongoing bombarding and shelling of the region rescue teams cannot access the places of devastation. Also, our contact with a local reporter who provided us with first footage of the place of occurrence has been cut off. The actual dimension of this massacre still needs to be investigated.”

On the same day, in Berebene village in Rajo, 21 civilians were wounded by Turkish artillery attacks. At least three of the civilians died within hours of the attack. The wounded civilians were identified as Dunya Ehmed Bekir, Şêxo Abdullqadir, Newroz Hesen Mustefa, Emîne Mihemed Mustefa, Cuma Hisên Abdullqadir, Mihemed Hisên Abdullqadir, Foziye Mihemed, Fîdan Bekir,  Mihemed Hisên Ebdo, Emîne Eslan Mustefa, Nezmiye Hesen, Cumana Ehmed Musa, Ehmed Hisên, Newroz Hesen, Hediye Elî Umer, Ilham Elî Umer, Ilham Menan Xelîl, Şiyar Abdullqadir, Dijle Ehmed Bekir, Fatime Eslan Mustefa, and Semîra Umer Şêx.

March 11

Turkish forces encircle Afrin City, cutting off the city’s water supply and shutting down Internet access.

March 16

The United Nations says that hundreds of thousands of civilians are at risk in Afrin City.

At 10:30 AM, a group of civilians waiting to leave the city in an open area near a cattle market was bombed, killing at least 20 civilians and injuring at least 30.

At 2:30 PM, at least two Turkish airstrikes hit Afrin’s main hospital, killing at least 9 people and injuring at least 20 more. The hospital is the only site providing medical care for sick and wounded civilians who have taken refuge in Afrin City as occupying forces surround the area. 

March 18

Turkish and affiliated forces reach the center of Afrin City and declare full control of the region. Large-scale looting of civilian property is documented almost immediately.

Tens of thousands of the region’s civilians begin to evacuate, raising the number of displaced persons to over 200,000.